Acesso Livre Acesso Livre  Acesso restrito Acesso Restrito

Alcance e limites da simbolização e da representação dos processos psíquicos nas filosofias, na psicanálise e nas neurociências

Jorge L. Ahumada

Resumo


Frente às mudanças das psicopatologias que hoje nos acabrunham como psicanalistas e, inclusive, como cidadãos, o presente trabalho pretende deslindar se tais mudanças, no início do psiquismo, são, em princípio, passíveis de serem abrangidas pelas filosofias – exemplificadas pela fenomenologia de Habermas – ou pelas neurociências. A fenomenologia só chega a vislumbrar tentativamente e, como uma periferia, a ocorrência de fenômenos psíquicos por fora do modelo do texto a que se cinge, enquanto as neurociências só timidamente ampliam seu campo de estudo para além do cartesianismo de base de seus modelos mecânicos. Para tal fim, questiona-se a distinção, pelas neurociências, de uma memória procedimental ou implícita, que supõem não distinguir indivíduos ou eventos, e uma memória explícita, que só apareceria a partir de dois a três anos. Fica, pois, para a psicanálise, localizada na linha do naturalismo amplo de Freud, distante dos cartesianismos, conciliar seu devido lugar com o estudo das incidências da cultura dos meios sobre a simbolização e a representação, em especial quanto ao psiquismo precoce, no marco da atual epidemia de autismo.

 

The range and limits of symbolization and representation of mental processes in the philosophies, psychoanalysis and neurosciences

Due to the changes of psychopathology that overwhelm us today as psychoanalysts as well as citizens, this study aims to disentangle whether such changes at the beginning of the psyche are capable of being covered by the philosophies – exemplified by Habermas phenomenology – or by the neurosciences. The phenomenology only reaches a glimpse and as a periphery, the occurrence of psychic phenomena outside its text, while the neurosciences only maidenly extend its field of study beyond the Cartesian base of their mechanical models. Therefore, it is questioned the distinction done by the neurosciences of a procedural or implicit memory, which seems not to distinguish individuals or events, and of an explicit memory, which only appear after two to three years of age. Thus, it is for psychoanalysis, coming from the wide naturalism of Freud, far from the Cartesian notion, to reconcile its place in the study of the effects of the virtual culture media on the symbolism and representation, especially regarding the early psyche, within the framework of current epidemic of autism.

Keywords: phenomenology, Habermas, neurosciences, Kandel, early psyche, autism epidemic, procedural or implicit memory, verbal or explicit memory, virtual culture media.


Palavras-chave


fenomenologia; Habermas; neurociências; Kandel; psiquismo precoce; epidemia de autismo; memória procedimental ou implícita; memória verbal ou explícita; cultura dos meios

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


Ahumada J. L. (1999). Descobertas e refutações: a lógica do método psicanalítico. Rio de Janeiro: Imago.

_____ (2006). The analytic mind at work: counter-inductive knowledge and the

blunders of so-called "theory of science". In J. Canestri. The analytic mind at work. Londres: Wiley.

_____ (2011). Insight: essays on psychoanalytic knowing. Londres: Routledge.

Call J. D. (1980). Some prelinguistic aspects of language development. Journal of Amererican Psychoanalylic Association, 28 (2), 259-89.

Preidt, R. (© 2005-2013). 1 in 10 U.S. kids diagnosed with ADHD: but many children who get diagnosis may not really have the condition, experts say. WebMD. Recuperado em novembro, 2013,de http://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/childhood-adhd/news/20130401/one-in-10-us-kids-diagnosed-with-adhd-report

Cheshire, N., & Thomä, H. (1991). Metaphor, neologism and "open texture": implications for translating Freud's scientific thought. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 18 (3), 429-455.

Coady, C. A. J. (1995). Common sense. In T. Honderich (Ed.). The Oxford companion to philosophy (p. 142). Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

Darwin, C. (1872). The expression of the emotions in man and animals. New York, BiblioBazaar, 2007.

Dosse, F. (1992). Histoire du structuralisme (2 volumes). Paris : La Découverte.

Eco, U. (1995). Unlimited semeiosis and drift: pragmaticism vs. "pragmatism". In K. L. Ketner (Ed.) Peirce and contemporary thought: philosophical inquiries (pp. 205-221). New York: Fordham University.

Freud, S. (1913) Totem and taboo (The Standard Edition, Vol. 13). London : Hogarth Pres.

_____ (1914). Remembering, repeating and working-through (The Standard Edition, Vol. 12). London : Hogarth Pres.

_____ (1923). The ego and the id (The Standard Edition, Vol. 19). London : Hogarth Pres.

_____ (1925) Negation. In _____. The ego and the id (The Standard Edition, Vol. 19, pp. 235-42). London : Hogarth Pres

_____ (1938). An outline of psycho-analysis (The Standard Edition, Vol. 23). London : Hogarth Pres.

Habermas, J. (1968). Knowledge and human interests. Boston: Beacon, 1971.

_____ (1976). What is universal pragmatics? In T. McCarthy (Ed.). Communication and the evolution of society (pp. 1-68). Boston: Beacon, 1979.

_____ (1981). The theory of communicative action. (Vol. 2, Lifeworld and System: a critique of functionalist reason). Boston: Beacon, 1989.

_____ (1985a). Questions and counter questions. In R. J. Bernstein. Habermas and modernity (pp. 192-216). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991.

_____ (1985b). The philosophical discourse of modernity: twelve lectures. Cambridge ,MA: MIT Press.

_____ (1999). Verdad y justificación: ensayos filosóficos . Madrid: Trotta, 2002.

_____ (2000) Richard Rorty's pragmatic turn. In R. B. Brandon. Rorty and his critics (pp. 31-55). Malden, MA; Londres: Blackwell.

_____ (2004, November 11) Public space and political public sphere: the biographical roots of two motifs of my thought. Conferência comemorativa, Kyoto.

Jordan, K. E., Brannon, E. M., Logothetis, N. K. & Ghazanfar, A. A. (2005). Monkeys match the number of voices they hear to the number of faces they see. Current Biology, 15 (11), 1034-38.

Kandel, E. R. (1998). A new intellectual framework for psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155 (4), 457–69.

_____ (1999). Biology and the future of psychoanalysis: a new intellectual framework for psychiatry revisited. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156 (4), 505–24.

Klein, M. (1961). Narrative of a child analysis: the conduct of the psycho-analysis of children as seen in the treatment of a ten year old boy. London: Hogarth, 1975.

Langer, S. K. K. (1942). Philosophy in a new key: a study in the symbolism of reason, rite and art. Cambridge, MA: Harvard; Oxford, 1957.

Laplanche, J. & Pontalis J.-B. (1967) Dictionnaire de la psychanalyse. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Money-Kyrle, R. (1965). Success and failure in mental maturations. In D. Meltzer (Ed.). The Collected Papers of Roger Money-Kyrle (pp. 416-33). Perthshire: Clunie Press, 1978.

_____ (1968). Cognitive development. In D. Meltzer (Ed.) The Collected Papers of Roger Money-Kyrle (pp. 397-406). Perthshire: Clunie Press, 1978.

_____ (1971). The aim of psychoanalysis. In D. Meltzer (Ed.) The Collected Papers of Roger Money-Kyrle (pp. 442-449). Perthshire: Clunie Press, 1978.

Nagel, T. (1994). Freud's permanent revolution. In _____. Other minds: critical essays 1969-1994 (pp. 26-44). New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Peirce, C. S. (1903). The principles of phenomenology. In J. Buchler (Ed.). Philosophical writings of Peirce (pp. 74-97). New York: Dover, 1955.

_____ (1905). Critical common-sensism. In J. Buchler (Ed.) Philosophical writings of Peirce (pp. 290-301). New York: Dover, 1955.

Piontelli, A. (1992). From fetus to child: a developmental and psychoanalytic study. Londres: Routledge.

Ricoeur, P. (1969). The conflict of interpretations: essays in hermeneutics. London, New York: Continuum, 2004.

Rodman, F. R. (Ed.) (1987). The spontaneous gesture: selected letters of D. W. Winnicott. Londres: Karnac.

Russell, B. (1911). Knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description. In _____. Mysticism and logic (pp. 200-221). Londres: Unwin Paperbacks, 1989.

Salomonsson, B. (2012). Has infantile sexuality anything to do with infants? International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 93 (3), 631-47.

Spitz, R. A. (1945). Hospitalism: an inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1, 53-74.

_____ (1964). The derailment of dialogue: stimulus overload, action cycles, and the completion gradient. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 12 (4), 762-65.

Park, A. (2013, April 2). Understanding the rise in ADHD diagnoses: 11% of U.S. children are affected. Recuperado em novembro, 2013, de http://healthland.time.com/2013/04/02/understanding-the-rise-in-adhd-diagnoses-11-of-u-s-children-are-affected/.

Tustin, F. (1972). Autism and childhood psychoses. Londres: Hogarth.

_____ (1988). The ‘black hole’: a significant element in autism. Free Association, s (1), 35-50.

Valls, J. L. (2009). Diccionario freudiano (2a. ed.). Buenos Aires: Gaby.

Winnicott, D. W. (1949). Birth memories, birth trauma, and anxiety. In _____. Through pediatrics to psychoanalysis (pp. 174-93). New York: Basic Books, 1975.

_____ (1951). Transitional objects and transitional phenomena. In _____. Through pediatrics to psychoanalysis (pp. 229-42). New York: Basic Books, 1975.

_____ (1956). Primary maternal preoccupation. In _____. Through pediatrics to psychoanalysis (pp. 300-5). New York: Basic Books, 1975.

_____ (1967). Postscript: D.W.W. on D.W.W. In C. Winnicott, R. Shepherd & M. Davies (Eds.). Psychoanalytic explorations (pp. 569-82). Londres: Karnac, 1989.

_____ (1970). The mother-infant experience of mutuality. In C. Winnicott, R. Shepherd & M. Davies (Eds.). Psychoanalytic explorations (p. 251-60). Londres: Karnac, 1989.




Revista de Psicanálise da SPPA  |  ISSN 1413-4438  |  ISSNe 2674-919X  | RPdaSPPA no Google Scholar

Classificação Qualis: B2 Psicologia

Sociedade Psicanalítica de Porto Alegre

Rua General Andrade Neves, 14/802 | 90010-210 | Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil | Fone +55 (51) 3228-7583 | E-mail: revista@sppa.org.br